Algeria`s position has gradually changed since 2002 and 2003, with the start of the 5-5 group meetings and the signing in April 2002 of an agreement establishing a free trade area between Algeria and the EU. The events of August to October 2005 – when hundreds of migrants invaded the Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla, killing 15 people and injuring dozens – had finally played a very important role. Morocco, Spain and the EU took advantage of these events to invite Algeria to participate more in the control of the Maghreb`s southern borders and in the fight against smuggling networks. It is important to note that, although they are drafted in a reciprocal context, readmission agreements or agreements have reciprocal obligations that cannot be applied in the same way to both parties: first, because they apply primarily (and as intended) to nationals of the country of origin; and secondly, because the parties do not have the same structural, institutional and legal capacity to deal with the removal of unauthorized aliens, whether they are identified as nationals of the contracting parties or as third country nationals crossing the territory of a contracting party. These are the main reasons why readmission agreements are characterized by “unbalanced reciprocity.” While the interest of a destination country seems obvious (“unwanted migrants must be effectively eliminated”), the interest of a country of origin may be less obvious, especially when one considers that its economy remains dependent on the incomes of its expatriates living abroad (legally or not), or if immigration continues to be seen as a security valve to relieve unemployment on national territory. This process of prioritization has led to a flexible reinterpretation, or even serious violations of internationally recognized norms and standards. Perhaps the most emblematic case is the way in which Italian-Libyan cooperation has developed in terms of readmission over the past five years. In April 2005, the European Parliament (EP) passed a resolution stating that “the Italian authorities have failed to comply with their international obligations by not endangering the lives of those they have displaced [in Libya] in their country of origin.” 4] This resolution was adopted in response to the action of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various human rights organizations that denounced the collective deportation of asylum seekers to Libya organized at the time by Italy.