The Schengen Agreement also contained measures to streamline extradition between participating countries, but these have now been incorporated into the European Arrest Warrant system.  Source: ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen_en The Belgian, French, German, Luxembourg and Dutch government signed the Schengen Agreement on 14 June 1985. Under the agreement, the five countries would phase out common border controls. There is also a similar system for local border traffic authorizations between Spain and Morocco for Ceuta and Melilla. This system is older and was incorporated into Spain`s Schengen accession treaty in 1991.  In this case, there are identity checks for all those travelling to other parts of the Schengen area (only by boat and air). These controls are not the rule for other local border areas. Since the implementation of the Schengen rules, the borders between the participating countries have been closed (and often completely abolished). However, some third-country nationals are allowed to stay more than 90 days in the Schengen area without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for an extended residence visa.  In addition, Article 20, paragraph 2, of the Schengen Agreement continues to apply it “in exceptional circumstances” and bilateral agreements concluded by some signatory states with other countries prior to the convention`s entry into force. For example, New Zealand citizens can apply to any Schengen country (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already concluded bilateral visa-free agreements with the New Zealand government prior to the agreement, without the need to apply for a long-stay visa, will apply 90 days within 180 days for travel to other Schengen countries.
             Schengen enlargement began a few months later with the signing of the agreement by Italy, followed by Spain and Portugal. Liechtenstein was the last country to sign in February 2008. Similarly, the Danish territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are not part of the European Union or the Schengen area. Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreements with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or by helicopter. [Citation required] However, there is no customs union (including customs) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders.