The withdrawal agreement between the European Union and the United Kingdom sets out the conditions for the UK`s orderly exit from the EU, in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on european Union. The political declaration clearly shows that the free movement of people will take place after that. In the statement, both parties commit to the objective of visa exemption for short-term visits and propose that similar rules apply to students, exchanges or researchers. However, there is no obligation for citizens who wish to live and work in both legal orders in the long term. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Department renegotiation in 2019. The amendments fit about 5% of the text. [22] The new political declaration sets out the framework for future relations between the European Union and the United Kingdom and reflects the Government`s desire for an ambitious, comprehensive, comprehensive and flexible partnership on trade and economic cooperation with the EU, which is essentially a free trade agreement with the EU, as well as security agreements and other areas of cooperation. The agreement defines the goods, services and processes associated with them. Any provision of goods or services legally put on the market before leaving the EU may be made available to consumers in the UK or in the EU Member States (Article 40-41). The British Parliament approved the draft agreement by adopting on 23 January 2020 the implementing laws (the 2020 Withdrawal Agreement Act) of the European Union (withdrawal agreement).

Following the signing of the agreement, the UK Government adopted and tabled the UK`s ratification instrument on 29 January 2020. [7] The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after approval by the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The UK`s withdrawal from the EU came into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, when the withdrawal agreement came into force in accordance with Article 185. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed. [19] The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political statement that replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards.

According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms. [27] In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration,[24] and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed. [26] Sir Keir Starmer, the shadow Brexit secretary, told Sky News that adopting the withdrawal agreement without the political declaration would create “the most blind Brexit.”